At the time of the globalization, the point on the export of the oeuvres of art

Papers, please! To protect its cultural heritage, France forbids the export of the ” national treasures “. So, with the aim of checking(controlling) the traffic(circulation) of works of art, French legislation she(it) subjects(submits) the exports to particular modalities(methods). The law of December 31st, 1992, reformed by that of July 20th, 2000, establishes the rules(rulers) which it is advisable to follow when a private individual wishes to export a work of art, either for the sale, or for a relocation of heritage(holdings). All the cultural property is not subjected(submitted) to these controls and the modalities(methods) are different according to the countries of destination. In any event, an export of work of art is likened to a sale and is subjected(submitted) thus fiscally to the same diet(regime). It is the application decree of the law of 1992 that mentions thresholds for every category of the properties(goods) beyond of which works of art must be subjected(submitted) to the control of export by the Ministry of Culture. The archaeological objects, the elements of an ancient or artistic memorial, the manuscripts and the incunabula are systematically the object of a control of export – and this whatever is their value. Follow mosaics, drawings on every type(chap) of support(medium), engravings, prints, lithographies eccentrics, photos, maps of more than two hundred years having a value superior to 15 000 €. Statues, sculptures, bronzes according to the original, the books(pounds) are also concerned being the more of hundred years old, the means of transportation of more than seventy-five years, the collections of zoology, numismatics or presenting a historic interest if the value is superior to 50 000 €. Paintings(boards) and paints(paintings) made completely for the hand on any support(medium) and in any materials(subjects) are also the object of a control if their value exceeds(overtakes) 150 000 €. It is the owner of the work that must be exported who(which) fixes the value of its good(property), determining the necessity of the passport. To export, temporarily or definitively, towards a Member state of the European Union one of the properties(goods) entering the categories defined above, the owner has to obtain a certificate giving evidence that the work is not considered national treasure and can thus go out freely of the French territory. This passport is to be asked with the Ministry of Culture. If the competent scientific authorities qualifies her(it) ” national treasure “, the work can take(bring) out of France only temporarily for a cultural event, a restoration(catering), an expertise or a deposit(warehouse) in a public collection. The owner is not any more indemnified as in the past and has to wait thirty months to ask again for a certificate. During this period, the State can go buyer. If he(it) refrains(abstains), the new demand(request) of certificate of export cannot be refused. Practically, when the passport is freed(delivered), he has to accompany the cultural property and be presented to the requisitions of the customs officers, on the occasion of any exits(releases) of the territory. The aforementioned certificate had previously a life expectancy(cycle) of five years, it is from now on valid in a permanent way for the properties(goods) of more than hundred years, and valid twenty years, renewable, for the properties(goods) of less than hundred years. In the case of an export in a country which does not belong to the European Union, these modalities(methods) grow heavy. For cultural property exceeding(overtaking) thresholds, it is there so necessary to obtain from the Ministry of Culture the passport of export in the conditions planned above. For a definitive export, it is advisable to appear with the passport in the service of the Titles(Securities) of the Foreign trade ( SETICE), in Paris, which issues the authorization. Furthermore, the owner has to put down(to deposit) in the customs office an export customs entry. Watch out, in France, only certain offices(desks) are specialized in the export of the cultural biesn. Three documents are thus necessary: The passport, the authorization and the export customs entry. However, for the properties(goods) the value of which is lower than the threshold, only the export customs entry is asked. For a temporary export except(off) U.E., besides the passport of export if he(it) is necessary, it is necessary to put down(to deposit,to give evidence), for the customs office, a temporary export customs entry. As a conclusion, we shall call back(remind) that the law sanctions(punishes) penally the illegal export of the ” national treasures ” or the cultural property subjected(submitted) to control: two years of prison and 450 000 € of fine.